( * means primary source)

Note: the servers where I found many of these textfiles tend to disappear,
so most of the electronically-accessible articles are stored and linked locally. Links to other websites may break. It's the nature of these things.

A Memorial to the Bell System. February 6, 2001.

BIOC Agent 003's Basic Telecommunications Series:

Compiled Tutorial: The Phreaking Philosophy, The Phone Phreak's Ten Commandments, CN/A numbers, AT&T Newslines, Automatic Number Identification, Phreak newsletters, the Black Box, rotary dial locks, exchange scanning, free Touch-Tone calls, telco tracing

Basic Telecom Part 1: Long-Distance services, WATS extenders, How Ma Bell Catched Phone Phreaks

Basic Telecom Part 2: More AT&T newsline info, loops, 99xx scanning for test numbers, ANI

Basic Telecom Part 3: North American numbering plan, international dialing

Basic Telecom Part 4: Operators and telco office hierarchies, switching equipment, Electronic Switching System (ESS)

*Basic Telecom Part 5: Basic telephone electronics, Black Box, ringing, dialing, transmitter/receiver, hybrid/induction coil, sidetone, hold circuit

*Basic Telecom Part 6: Fortress (pay) Fones, coins/slugs, Green Box, physical attack methods (drilling locks, breaking coin box), Clear Box

*Basic Telecom Part 7: BLUE BOX. Inband signalling principles, detection, "pink noise," operator codes

*Draper, John T. "Cap'n Crunch Comments on the Esquire Article." The Well,, 16 May 1998.

Dastar Com. "COCOT Experimenter's Resource Guide." 2600 Magazine, Vol. 12, No.3, pp. 20 - 27+.

*Edison, Tom, et al. "New Blue Box!" Technological Assistance Program (TAP) Magazine, No. 26, March 1974.

*Edison, Tom, et al. "The Red Box." The Youth International Party Line (YIPL), No. 16, February 1973.

"Electronic Toll Fraud Devices: Blue Boxing." The 80s Textfile Archive,

*Exodus. "Blue Box." Hacks N' Cracks. (defunct).

Halflinger, Nick. "The Art and Practice of Blue Boxing." The 80s Textfile Archive,

Luthor, Lex. "The History of ESS.",, May 16 1998.

*Rosenbaum, Ron. "Secrets of the Little Blue Box." Esquire Magazine, vol. 76, October 1971, pp 68-76.

Sterling, Bruce. The Hacker Crackdown. Bantam: New York, 1992.

*"The Phreaker's Glossary." The Works BBS. Reprinted at The 80s Textfile Archive,

Telephone Technology Page. February 6, 2001.

Some interesting links:

Flash-based tone dialer courtesy of
Some Box Plans
Cap'n Crunch's Home in Cyberspace phreaking textfiles archive
PHRACK Magazine

And of course,



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